3D Kite Aerial Photography

and other techniques

Now posting on Kite Aerial Remote Sensing (Facebook)

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KAP index

Archaeology Index

Kite Aerial Photography Links

Cairnpapple, West Lothian.

Still from a virtual 3D model formed by merging two KAP images in Agisoft Photoscan (Free trial).

See also Meerstone.

Thanks Nathan for suggesting Photoscan for KAP work.


Roman building near Tetbury, Gloucestershire.

Inverted kite aerial photo.

3D photoscan version of the above inverted image using two kite aerial photos. (8.34MB pdf)

(Download the model then: Ctrl+left mouse button to move image, left mouse button to rotate, wheel to zoom)

Re-inverted still from the above 3D photoscan model.


St Ninian's Chapel, Isle of Bute.

A still from a near infra-red virtual 3D photoscan model with virtual lighting (Meshlab).



Digital Terrain Modelling and Stereo Photography  etc


Gordon Petrie's  extensive Geoinformatics Links (including KAP)

A Guide to Open and Free Software

Photogrammetric 3D restitution of Surfaces Using Free Tools

flickr 3D Aerial Photography

YouTube KAP and Photogrammetry

KAP 3D Virtual Images Printed to Hard Copy Models


Erik Kjellman

Kieran Baxter

This artificially lit mesh shows the remains of the Iron Age broch and wheelhouses at Jarlsof, cut through by the encroaching shoreline and overlaid with the 16th century Laird's House


Bill Isenberger: Digital Mapping

KAP at Al Baleed Archaeological Park in Salalah, Oman.

Bill Isenberger


Mark Willis Kite Aerial Photogrammetry

Using Photogrammetry with Low Altitude Aerial Photographs Parts (1) & (2)

Madera Quemada KAP

Mark Willis


The Public Laboratory for Open Technology and Science (PLOTS) is a community which develops and applies open-source tools to environmental exploration and investigation.

xRes Studio
The Fiducial Mark
Kite Aerial Photogrammetry in Tell el Retaba Egypt
Frank Krijnen Photogrammetry
Miron Bogacki
Bart Slot: Birdseye.nl

Nathan Craig: Anthropology Analytical Cartography and Geographic Information System Lab at the Pennsylvania State University (2)

KAP at Turtle Ridge
Others on YouTube


The Bonn Archaeological Software Package

Free Geography Tools

Quantum GIS  (2)

Blender open source 3D content creation suite

Stereo Photography  (1) (2) (3)

Photosynth (2) (KAP discussion page)

Photogrammy Forum




Free Agisoft Lens and StereoScan

StereoData Maker  for Canon Compact Cameras ( gentstereo releases )

Stereo Photo Maker Software (Free) with details of anaglyph creation

PhotoModeler  md@photarc.co.uk  Download Demo Training available

Topcon ImageMaster Photo

Leica Photogrammetry Suite


Suggestions for other links are always welcome



There are some intriguing items on the internet relating to 3D KAP (and ground-contour mapping - see DEM / DTM) as indicated above.

If the recent trends in radar-on-a-chip technology are reflected in the development of Lidar equipment, much more compact systems may not be that far away but expense may continue to be an issue for both hardware and software.  Computer / machine vision is a rapidly developing field and the use of cameras directly controlled by computers/FPGAs may find a wider use in KAP.  Time-of-flight cameras (2) are an interesting development.

A multi-disciplinary approach to archaeological photography is particularly productive, as further illustrated by the archaeological, ground-based remote sensing systems (GBRS) developed by Christopher Brooke in the Departments of Archaeology, History, and Physics at the University of Nottingham since1983. The DART project is another but broader example of a collaborative effort. Our own team comes from varied disciplines as do the members of the more recent PLOTS project.

The Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society is the UKs leading Society for remote sensing and photogrammetry and their application to education, science, research, industry, commerce and the public service. There is an Archaeology Special Interest Group.

The international Aerial Archaeology Research Group also provides a forum for the exchange of ideas and information for all those actively involved in aerial photography.